Thursday, May 21, 2020
TheÃ homophonesÃ right, rite, wright, and write are pronounced the same but have very different meanings, histories, and uses. Many definitions are associated with these terms, especially with right. All were inherited from a Germanic form. How to Use Right The most common of the four words in the English language is right, which can be a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. As a noun, right means something proper or morally or socially correct (right versus wrong); appropriate (to do right); a politically conservative position (speaking on the Right); legal, moral, or natural entitlement (has the right); the copyright ownership of something, usually plural (the movie rights to a novel); or a position or direction (as opposed to left). As a verb, right can mean to make straight; to recover ones balance, especially after a fall (right oneself); to set in order; to avenge, redress, or rectify an injustice or injury; or to turn to the right. As an adjective, right means that which is done in accordance with justice or goodness (the morally right choice to make); correct or true (the right answer); of a particular religious belief or principle (the right doctrine of God); leading in the correct direction (the right road); perfectly suited for (Mr. or Ms. Right or the right person for the job); or to be normal, natural, or sound in mind (in his right mind). And, of course, right also refers to something on the right-hand side of an object from the perspective of the observer. Finally, when used as an adverb, right can mean in a direct course or line (stepped right), immediately following (right after), occurring soon in time (Ill be right with you), or in a fitting or appropriate manner (it must be done right). How to Use Rite The noun rite, borrowed from Latin ritus, refers to a formal act or observance in religious or other solemn ceremonies, or a ceremony itself (the rite of baptism). In a nonreligious sense, rite means a custom or habit. How to Use Wright The noun wright is an Old English word, and it always refers to a person who builds, creates, or repairs something (as in playwright or shipwright). In American English, wright is mostly seen as a suffix to whatever is being worked on. How to Use Write The verb write comes from Middle English and was first used in the 15th century. It means the action of forming letters, symbols, or words on paper or the like, whether with pen or pencil, typewriter or computer; to set down in written form; to frame a written statement; or to convey information by a letter (he wrote me today); to express ones feelings or thoughts in written form; or to compose or set down on paper a literary composition, narrative, verse, or the like. Examples Right as a noun primarily refers to entitlement or ownership. I was thrilled when the producer bought the rights to my novel.He has a right to make his own decisions now. Right as an adjective refers to immediacy or to justice or fairness. The only right thing to do was to go back home and apologize.She had to run right home after school every day to do her chores. As a verb, right means to set in order or recover ones balance. The furious man tripped and then tried to right himself.After the storm, Allen righted the room. As an adverb, right refers to direction: The bear looked right at me and then slowly walked away.Turn right at the next corner and walk three blocks to the library. The noun rite is a celebration or custom thats often tied to religion. The rite of passage was a three-day ritual to welcome the young people of the village into adulthood.Two importantÃ ritesÃ ofÃ Protestantism are baptism and communion. Write also refers to the practice of authorship: I write to my mother every other Sunday.Every spring, he writes a celebratory poem. Wright means an artisan or a person who creates or manufactures things; the term is frequently seen in American English as a suffix or a persons surname. My great-great-grandfather was a shipwright in London.Lorraine Hansberry was an African-American playwright whose most famous work was A Raisin in the Sun. How to Remember the Differences Remember that right always means something similar to correct or trueÃ¢â¬âthe word right as in right hand, means strong or correct in many languages, including English. Some scholars believe thats because most people are right-handed, meaning their right hand would be stronger or more adept than their left. Rite is from Latin and refers to mostly religious eventsÃ¢â¬âthese days, the only place where Latin is regularly spoken is in some Christian churches. Wright is obscure unless its used as a suffixÃ¢â¬âthink of it as referring to the Wright brothers (who made planes) or Frank Lloyd Wright (who made buildings). Write always refers to the action of creating language appearing on a page or screen (or in your head); remember that its spelled like white, the color of paper. Sources New York Theater. Ã¢â¬Å"Book Review: Looking for Lorraine Hansberry.Ã¢â¬ Ã New York Theater, 17 Feb. 2019, newyorktheater.me/2019/02/15/looking-for--the-radiant-and-radical-life-of--hansberry/.Ã¢â¬Å"Right.Ã¢â¬ Ã Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/right.Ã¢â¬Å"Rite.Ã¢â¬ Ã American Heritage Dictionary Entry: Rite, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?qrite.Ã¢â¬Å"Wright.Ã¢â¬ Ã Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wright. Ã¢â¬Å"Write.Ã¢â¬ Ã American Heritage Dictionary Entry: Write, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?qwrite.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Statistic Final Project: Ã¢â¬Å"Do women prefer dark colors than men?Ã¢â¬ By: Andrea Motta Previous Studies of this topic According to the study done by Guilford and Smith (1959), there was found that men are generally more attracted toward achromatic colors than women. In addition, they also proposed that women might be more conscious of the colors and their color preference is more flexible and diverse. Also, years later, McInnis and Shearer (1964) stated that 56% of men and 76% of women preferred cool colors, and 51% men and 45% women chose bright colors. In a similar study, Plater (1967) stated that men usually prefer stronger chromes than women. Statement of the problem Although there have been many studies about the relationship of colorsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Specifying if it is dark or light/bright color) The response of the total 100 people sample was described as: 10% of men and 9% of women prefer dark clothes and dark color for their car. 12% of men and 22% of women prefer light/bright clothes and light/bright color for their car. 26% of men and 21% of women does not have a relationship in color. Analysis of the Data The samples and results are not limited to a specific area because of the use of social media, but it was simple random sample. Descriptive Data Analysis: A pie chart was used to describe the sample data since there were only two categories of individuals (Men and Women). The pie chart reveled that the majority of respondents were Women (52%) compared to Men (48%). On one hand, the 52% of women were distributed as, 42% preferred light colors, 17% preferred dark colors, and 41% did not have preference of colors (figure 1). On the other side, the 48% of men were distributed as, 25% of light colors, 21% of dark colors, and 54% did not have color preference (figure 2). Test Analysis: Chi-square analysis was done using TI-84plus to identify the association of gender and preference of color. The claim that the color chosen is dependent of the gender is tested at Ã¢Ë =0.05. Hypothesis Ho: The color chosen is independent of the gender. Ha: The color chosen is dependent of the gender. (Claim) Test Statistic (TI-84plus): 2ND + X-1 Edit (Enter data from figure 3, excluding labels) STAT
Incident Review 1. What is the ethical issue or problem? Identify the issue succinctly. The ethical issue would be rather to arrest the man for domestic violence or driving while intoxicated due to the test that the officers performed and what they observed. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethical Dilemna Ã¢â¬â Law Enforcement or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2. What are the most important facts? Which facts have the most bearing on the ethical decision presented? Include any important potential economic, social, or political pressures, and exclude inconsequential facts. The most important facts is that the car was still warm and they observed the man drop something out of his pockets that looked like keys. The wife stated that she had not driven the vehicle all day and the man stated that he had not driven the car since he arrived 4 hours ago. The officer performed a sobriety test and a preliminary alcohol screening test which revealed that the manÃ¢â¬â¢s blood alcohol was twice the legal limit. There was also a domestic violence call which is the reason the officer responded to the house. 3. Identify each claimant (key actor) who has an interest in the outcome of this ethical issue. From the perspective of the moral agentÃ¢â¬âthe individual contemplating an ethical course of actionÃ¢â¬âwhat obligation is owed to the claimant? Why? Claimant (key actor) Obligation (owed to the claimant) Perspective (What does the claimant hope will happen?) Husband Fidelity, beneficence The husband is trying to avoid being arrested and wishes to be left alone by the officers. Wife Beneficence, non-injury The wife does not want to her husband to be arrested and does not want the help of the two officers Officer Nixon and Officer Nook Justice The officers are there to seek the truth and justice of the crimes that have been committed. Even though the case may be thrown out of court the officers do have the warmth of the car as evidence to present to the court. Society Justice Society wants to make sure that the wife gets help against her husband for domestic violence. Society also wants to make sure that the streets are safe and if the husband is behind the wheel at the double the legal limit of alcohol then he is putting himself and society in harm. Evaluating Alternatives 4. What are two alternatives for the scenario? One alternative can be a wild card that you ordinarily may not consider an option because of potential implications. Both should be within free will and control of the same moral agent. Alternative A Alternative B 5. Respond to the following questions based on your developed alternatives. Alternative A Alternative B What are the best- and worst-case scenarios if you choose this alternative? Will anyone be harmed if this alternative is chosen? If so, how will they be harmed? Consider families and derivative effects. Would honoring an idea or valueÃ¢â¬âsuch as personal, professional, or religiousÃ¢â¬âmake the alternative invalid? Are there any rules, laws, or principles that support the alternative? Are there rules, laws, or principles that make the alternative invalid? State the rule or principle and indicate if it invalidates or supports the alternative. Applying Ethical Guidelines 6. Consider each ethical guideline and explain whether it would support or reject your alternative. Guidelines based on the action itself Alternative A Alternative B Should this alternative become a rule or policy that everyone in this situation should follow in similar situations in the future? (Kant) Does this alternative result in using any person as a means to an end without consideration for his or her basic integrity? (Kant) Is the intent of this action free from vested interest or ulterior motive? (KantÃ¢â¬â¢s good will) Does this alternative demonstrate a genuine concern for others affected by the decision, and is the moral agency responding to a perceived need? Guidelines based on consequences Alternative A Alternative B Is the good that results from this alternative outweighed by the potential harm that might be done to others? (MillÃ¢â¬â¢s harm principle) Is any harm brought about by anyone other than the moral agent? (causal harm) Will anyone be harmed who can be said to be defenseless? (paternalism) To what degree is this alternative based on the moral agentÃ¢â¬â¢s own best interest? (ethical egoism) Which alternative will generate the greatest benefitÃ¢â¬âor the least amount of harmÃ¢â¬âfor the greatest number of people? Select only one alternative. (utilitarianism) Ethical Decision Making 7. Choose to proceed with either Alternative A or Alternative B and explain the reasons for your decision. How to cite Ethical Dilemna Ã¢â¬â Law Enforcement, Essays
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Margaret Atwood Margaret Atwood is an acclaimed poet, novelist, and short story writer. With such a variety of works in different types of writing, it is difficult to grasp every aspect of Atwoods purpose of writing. A comparative analysis of Rape Fantasies reveals the Atwoods writing is varied in many ways yet soundly consistent especially when comparing a particular set of writing such as a group of her other short stories. Atwoods background plays a large part in her writing. Atwood was born in Ottawa, Canada in 1913. Her father was an entomologist, so she spent much of her childhood in the wilderness and other various urban places around Canada. Throughout her life, she lived in numerous Canadian residences as well as several towns in the United States. She has also lived in England, France, Italy and Germany. With this extensive background, Atwood displays a vast knowledge of the world around her, although large portions of her writing are based on Canadian settings. As a young girl, she starte d reading many books and even writing poems and comics. After deciding that she wanted to become a writer, Atwood attended the University of Toronto and earned her bachelors degree in 1961. Following this, she went on to receiver her masters degree from Harvard University. Since 1961, Atwood has produced a highly acclaimed body of work that includes fiction, poetry and literary criticism. Atwood published her first volume of poems, Double Persephone, in 1961 (Toronto), followed by many more throughout the next three decades, interspersed with novels, including The Edible Woman, Surfacing, Lady Oracle, Life Before Man, Bodily Harm, The Handmaids Tale and The Robber Bride. (Contemporary Literary Criticism, 48). Among Atwoods extensive list of writing, it is important to note the handful of short fiction that she has published. Her most recent collection of short fiction is titled Good Bones which was published in 1992. Some other significant short fiction works include Wilderness Tips, Bluebeards Egg, Murder in The Dark, and Dancing Girls. All together Margaret Atwoods major published pieces total over forty. For a majority of these works, Margaret Atwood has received numerous awards. Canadas highest literary honor, the Governor Generals Award, was awarded to Atwood for her poetry collection The Circle Game in 1967. She received the award again in 1986 for her novel, The Handmaids Tale. Another significant work that has won Atwood a number of awards are Cats Eye, which is a novel that Atwood produced in 1988. Her large amount of awards proves to her readers that she is a good writer. By looking at a portion of these other works, short stories in particular, it is easy to compare a majority of her work and conclude that her writing of Rape Fantasies is typical of the work that she normally produces. In general, Atwoods literary reputation for subject matter, themes and style are recognizable with the other work that she produces. In her short stories, she follows a few basics, but usually has one significant underlying meaning. The subject matter of Atwoods works usually focuses on either relationships or power, perhaps sometimes both. The relationships in her short stories are either male to female or female-to-female. Atwoods writing has a strong focal point on human relationships. Atwood consistently uses relationships to develop her stories. In her novels, Margaret Atwood creates situations in which women burdened by the rules and inequalities of their societies, discover that they must reconstruct braver, self reliant personae in order to survive (Goldblatt 276). In one of Atwoods short stories, Uncles, the author presents the relationships that a young girl has with her uncles. The bond, although slightly unusual, is closer with her uncles rather than her aunts. The uncles are important to the girl because of the loss of her father. She needs the male bonding that she lacks from her father, so she gets this through her uncles. Atwood often portrays women as dependent on men. This is such the case in U ncles. Even after her uncles are gone, the protagonist meets a man at her workplace. Although at first, it seems like she might overcome him, he gets the best of her and begins to make her wonder if she
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Biography of Julius Kambarage Nyerere, Tanzanian Leader Julius Kambarage NyerereÃ (March 1922 - October 14, 1999) was one of Africas leading independence heroes and leading light behind the creation of the Organization of African Unity. He was the architect of ujamaa,Ã an African socialist philosophy which revolutionized Tanzanias agricultural system. He was the prime minister of an independent Tanganyika and the first president of Tanzania. Fast Facts: Julius Kambarage Nyerere Known For: First president of Tanzania, architect ofÃ ujamaa,Ã an African socialist philosophy which revolutionized Tanzanias agricultural system and one of the leaders of the Organization of African UnityBorn: March 1922, Butiama, TanganyikaDied: October 14, 1999, London, UKSpouse: Maria Gabriel Majige (m. 1953-1999)Children: Andrew Burito, Anna Watiku, Anselm Magige, John Guido, Charles Makongoro, Godfrey Madaraka, Rosemary Huria, Pauleta NyabananeNotable Quote: If a door is shut, attempts should be made to open it; if it is ajar, it should be pushed until it is wide open. In neither case should the door be blown up at the expense of those inside. Early Life Kambarage (the spirit which gives rain) Nyerere was born to Chief Burito Nyerere of the Zanaki (a small ethnic group in northern Tanganyika) and his fifth (out of 22) wife Mgaya Wanyangombe. Nyerere attended a local primary mission school, transferring in 1937 to Tabora Secondary School, a Roman Catholic mission and one of the few secondary schools open to Africans at that time. He was baptized a Catholic on December 23, 1943, and took the baptismal name Julius. Nationalistic Awareness Between 1943 and 1945 Nyerere attended Makerere University, in Ugandas capital Kampala, obtaining a teaching certificate. It was around this time that he took his first steps towards a political career. In 1945 he formed Tanganyikas first student group, an offshoot of the African Association, AA, (a pan-African group first formed by Tanganyikas educated elite in Dar es Salaam, in 1929). Nyerere and his colleagues began the process of converting the AA towards a nationalistic political group. Once he had gained his teaching certificate, Nyerere returned to Tanganyika to take up a teaching post at Saint Marys, a Catholic mission school in Tabora. He opened a local branch of the AA and was instrumental in converting the AA from its pan-African idealism to the pursuit of Tanganyikan independence. To this end, the AA restyled itself in 1948 as the Tanganyika African Association, TAA. Gaining a Wider Perspective In 1949 Nyerere left Tanganyika to study for an MA in economics and history at the University of Edinburgh. He was the first African from Tanganyika to study at a British university and, in 1952, was the first Tanganyikan to gain a degree. At Edinburgh, Nyerere became involved with the Fabian Colonial Bureau (a non-Marxist, anti-colonial socialist movement based in London). He watched intently Ghanas path to self-governmentÃ and was aware of the debates in Britain on the development of a Central African Federation (to be formed from a union of North and South Rhodesia and Nyasaland). Three years of study in the UK gave Nyerere an opportunity to vastly widen his perspective of pan-African issues. Graduating in 1952, he returned to teach at a Catholic school near Dar es Salaam. On January 24, 1953, he married primary school teacher Maria Gabriel Majige. Developing the Independence Struggle in Tanganyika This was a period of upheaval in west and south Africa. In neighboring Kenya the Mau Mau uprising was fighting against white settler rule, and aÃ nationalistic reaction was rising against the creation of the Central African Federation. But political awareness in Tanganyika was nowhere near as advanced as with its neighbors. Nyerere, who had become president of the TAA in April 1953, realized that a focus for African nationalism amongst the population was needed. To that end, in July 1954, Nyerere converted the TAA into Tanganyikas first political party, the Tanganyikan African National Union, or TANU. Nyerere was careful to promote nationalistic ideals without encouraging the kind of violence that was erupting in Kenya under the Mau Mau uprising. TANU manifesto was for independence on the basis of non-violent, multi-ethnic politics, and the promotion of social and political harmony. Nyerere was appointed to Tanganyikas Legislative Council (the Legco) in 1954. He gave up teaching the following year to pursue his career in politics. International Statesman Nyerere testified on behalf of TANU to the UN Trusteeship Council (committee on trusts and non-self-governing territories), in both 1955 and 1956. He presented the case for setting a timetable for Tanganyikan independence (this being one of the specified aims set down for a UN trust territory). The publicity he gained back in Tanganyika established him as the countrys leading nationalist. In 1957 he resigned from the Tanganyikan Legislative Council in protest over the slow progress independence. TANU contested the 1958 elections, winning 28 of 30 elected positions in the Legco. This was countered, however, by 34 posts which were appointed by the British authorities - there was no way for TANU to gain a majority. But TANU was making headway, and Nyerere told his people that Independence will follow as surely as the tickbirds follow the rhino. Finally with the election in August 1960, after changes to the Legislative Assembly were passed, TANU gained the majority it sought, 70 out of 71 seats. Nyerere became chief minister on September 2, 1960, and Tanganyika gained limited self-government. Independence In May 1961 Nyerere became prime minister, and on December 9, Tanganyika gained its independence. On January 22, 1962, Nyerere resigned from the premiership to concentrate on drawing up a republican constitution and to prepare TANU for government rather than liberation. On December 9, 1962, Nyerere was elected president of the new Republic of Tanganyika. Nyereres Approach to Government #1 Nyerere approached his presidency with a particularly African stance. First, he attempted to integrate into African politics the traditional style of African decision making (what is known as indaba in Southern Africa). A consensus is gained through a series of meetings in which everyone has an opportunity to say their piece. To help build national unity he adopted Kiswahili as the national language, making it the only medium of instruction and education. Tanganyika became one of the few African countries with an indigenous official national language. Nyerere also expressed a fear that multiple parties, as seen in Europe and the US, would lead to ethnic conflict in Tanganyika. Political Tensions In 1963 tensions on the neighboring island of Zanzibar started to impact on Tanganyika. Zanzibar had been a British protectorate, but on 10 December 1963, independence was gained as a SultanateÃ (under Jamshid ibn Abd Allah) within the Commonwealth of Nations. AÃ coup onÃ January 12, 1964, overthrew the sultanate and established a new republic. Africans and Arabs were in conflict, and the aggression spread to the mainland - the Tanganyikan army mutinied. Nyerere went into hiding and was forced to ask Britain for military assistance. He set about strengthening his political control of both TANU and the country. In 1963 he established aÃ one-party stateÃ which lasted until July 1, 1992, outlawed strikes, and created a centralized administration. A one-party state would allow collaboration and unity without any suppression of opposing views he stated. TANU was now the only legal political party in Tanganyika. Once order was restored Nyerere announced the merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika as a new nation; the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar came into being on April 26, 1964, with Nyerere as president. The country was renamed the Republic of Tanzania on October 29, 1964. Nyereres Approach to Government #2 Nyerere was reelected president of Tanzania in 1965 (and would be returned for another three successiveÃ five-yearÃ terms before resigning as president in 1985. His next step was to promote his system of African socialism, and on February 5, 1967, he presented the Arusha Declaration which set out his political and economic agenda. The Arusha Declaration was incorporatedÃ intoÃ TANUs constitution later that year. The central core of the Arusha Declaration wasÃ ujamma, Nyereres take on an egalitarian socialist society based on cooperative agriculture. The policy was influential throughout the continent, but it ultimately proved to be flawed.Ã UjamaaÃ is a Swahili word which means community orÃ family-hood. NyereresÃ ujamaaÃ was a program of independent self-help which supposedly would keep Tanzania from becomingÃ dependantÃ on foreign aid. It emphasized economic cooperation, racial/tribal, and moralistic self-sacrifice. By the earlyÃ 1970s, a program of villagization was slowly organizing rural life into village collectives. Initially voluntary, the process met with increasing resistance, and in 1975 Nyerere introduced forced villagization. Almost 80 percent of the population ended up organized into 7,700 villages. UjamaaÃ emphasized the countrys need to be self-sufficient economically rather than being dependent onÃ foreign aidÃ andÃ foreign investment. Nyerere also set up mass literacyÃ campaignsÃ and provided free and universal education. In 1971, he introduced state ownership for banks, nationalized plantations and property. In January 1977 he merged TANU and Zanzibars Afro-Shirazi Party into a new national party - theÃ Chama Cha MapinduziÃ (CCM, Revolutionary State Party). Despite a great deal of planning and organization, agricultural production declined over the 70s, and by the 1980s, with falling world commodity prices (especially for coffee and sisal), its meager export base disappeared and Tanzania became the largest per-capita recipient of foreign aid in Africa. Nyerere on the International Stage Nyerere was a leading force behind the modern Pan-African movement, a leading figure in African politics in the 1970s, and was one of the founders of the Organization of African Unity, OAU, (now theÃ African Union). He was committed to supporting liberation movements in Southern Africa and was a forceful critic of the apartheid regime of South Africa, chairing a group of five frontline presidents who advocated the overthrow of white supremacists in South Africa, South-West Africa, and Zimbabwe. Tanzania became a favored venue for liberation army training camps and political offices. Sanctuary was given to members of South AfricasÃ African National Congress, as well as similar groups from Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Angola, and Uganda. As a strong supporter of theÃ Commonwealth of Nations, Nyerere helped engineer South Africas exclusion on the basis of itsÃ apartheidÃ policies. When PresidentÃ Idi AminÃ of Uganda announced the deportation of all Asians, Nyerere denounced his administration. When Ugandan troops occupied a small border area of Tanzania in 1978 Nyerere pledged to bring the downfall of Amin. In 1979 20,000 troops from the Tanzanian army invaded Uganda to aid Ugandan rebels under the leadership of Yoweri Museveni. Amin fled into exile, and Milton Obote, a good friend of Nyerere, and the president Idi Amin had deposed back in 1971, was placed back in power. The economic cost to Tanzania of the incursion into Uganda was devastating, and Tanzania was unable to recover. Death Julius Kambarage Nyerere died on October 14, 1999, in London, UK, ofÃ leukemia. Despite his failed policies, Nyerere remains aÃ deeplyÃ respected figure both in Tanzania and Africa as a whole. He is referred to by his honorific titleÃ mwalimuÃ (a Swahili word meaning teacher). Legacy and End of an Influential Presidency In 1985 Nyerere stepped down from the presidency in favor of Ali Hassan Mwinyi. But he refused to give up power completely, remaining leader of the CCM. When Mwinyi started to dismantleÃ ujamaaÃ and to privatize the economy, Nyerere ran interference. He spoke out against what he saw as too much reliance on international trade and the use ofÃ grossÃ domestic product as the main measure of Tanzanias success. At the time of his departure, Tanzania was one of the worlds poorest countries. Agriculture has reduced to subsistence levels, transportation networks were fractured, and industry was crippled. At leastÃ one-thirdÃ of the national budget was provided by foreign aid. On the positive side, Tanzania had Africas highest literacy rate (90 percent), had halved infant mortality, and was politically stable. In 1990 Nyerere gave up leadership of the CCM, finally admitting that some of his policies hadnt been successful. Tanzania held multiparty elections for the first time in 1995.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Definition of Consumption within Sociology In sociology, consumption is about so much more than just taking in or using up resources. Humans consume to survive, of course, but in todays world, we also consume to entertain and amuse ourselves, and as a way to share time and experiences with others. We consume not only material goods but alsoÃ services, experiences, information, and cultural products like art, music, film, and television. In fact, from the sociological perspective, consumption today is a central organizing principle of social life. It shapes our everyday lives,Ã our values, expectations and practices, our relationships with others, our individual and group identities, and our overall experience in the world. Consumption According to Sociologists Sociologists recognize that many aspects of our daily lives are structured by consumption. In fact, Polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman wrote in the book Consuming Life that Western societies are no longer organized around the act of production, but instead, around consumption. This transition began in the United States in the mid-twentieth century,Ã after which most production jobs were moved overseas, and our economy shifted to retail and the provision of services and information. As a consequence, most of us spend our days consuming rather than producing goods. On any given day, one might travel to work by bus, train, or car; work in an office that requires electricity, gas, oil, water, paper, and a host of consumer electronics and digital goods; purchase a tea, coffee, or soda; go out to a restaurant for lunch or dinner; pick up dry cleaning; purchase health and hygiene products at a drug store; use purchased groceries to prepare dinner, and then spend the evening watching television, enjoying social media, or reading a book. All of these are forms of consumption. Because consumption is so central to how we live our lives, it has taken on great importance in the relationships we forge with others. We often organize visits with others around the act of consuming, whether that be sitting down to eat a home-cooked meal as a family, taking in a movie with a date, or meeting friends for a shopping excursion at the mall. In addition, we often use consumer goods to express our feelings for others through the practice of gift-giving, or notably, in the act of proposing marriage with an expensive piece of jewelry. Consumption is also a central aspect of the celebration of both secular and religious holidays, like Christmas, ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, and Halloween. It has even become a political expression, like when we buy ethically produced or sourced goods, or engage in a boycott of a certain product or brand. Sociologists also see consumption as an important part of the process of forming and expressing both individual and group identities. In Subculture: The Meaning of Style, sociologist Dick Hebdige observed that identity is often expressed through fashion choices, which allows us to classify people as hipsters or emo, for example. This happens because we choose consumer goods that we feel say something about who we are. Our consumer choices are often meant to reflect our values and lifestyle, and in doing so, send visual signals to others about the kind of person we are. Because we associate certain values, identities, and lifestyles with consumer goods, sociologists recognize that some troubling implications follow the centrality of consumption in social life. We often make assumptions, without even realizing it, about a personÃ¢â¬â¢s character, social standing, values, and beliefs, or even their intelligence, based on how we interpret their consumer practices. Because of this, consumption can serve processes of exclusion and marginalization in societyÃ and can lead to conflict across lines of class, race or ethnicity, culture, sexuality, and religion. So, from the sociological perspective, theres much more to consumption than meets the eye. In fact, theres so much to study about consumption that theres a whole subfield dedicated to it: the sociology of consumption.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Network system , Cloud Networking - Essay Example It decreases latency or network load. However, this new concept has many challengesÃ¢â¬â¢ in future. This research paper presents the new concept of Ã¢â¬Å"Cloud NetworkingÃ¢â¬ and its design architecture, sustainability and security in the networking infrastructure. The primary goal of this report is to explain the challenges, solutions and need that are associated with cloud networking. Key words: Cloud Networking, sustainability, Design, Architecture and Infrastructure. I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing is a very broad term and includes a variety of aspects and dimensions, which are very helpful in hosting a large number of applications and making them available to any device at any time . Mostly it is used by business houses whether they are big, small or medium size. But the concept first originated back in the days when cloud computing was introduced by companies like Google, Yahoo, Amazon, etc. and now is used on a large scale in organizations like Dell, IBM, HP, Microso ft, and alike. The emergence of cloud networking has eliminated the concept of Ã¢â¬Ësilo computingÃ¢â¬â¢ where an application or software was of restricted use and available to only selected systems. A cloud networking system creates multiple layers and multi-tiered systems inside a cloud server, allowing for enhancement of cloud protection and security and application of complex software . The report aims at understanding the development of cloud networking, its impact on the environment and how various organizations joined forces to formulate plans to protect the natural surroundings. II. DEVELOPMENT OF CLOUD NETWORKING There has been a paradigm shift in how computers are used to store, manage and retrieve data in an organization. The very concept of cloud computing has satisfied the uneven demands of users who wanted cheap computing resources which was able to record, store, retrieve and disseminate information. Cloud networking poses some new challenges when compared to c onventional OSI systems. Many new components and dimensions have been added to the use of computers, the internet is one of them. The cloud network now includes a layer of web applications, which is additional in comparison to traditional OSI systems . Cloud networking works with IaaS (Infrastructure as a service) and SaaS (Software as a Service) while aiming at reducing consumption of energy and cost, leading to a green cloud. Though in early times, sleep mode was seen as a very effective way of decreasing energy usage, but now as servers are required to be online 24*7, expenditures made for maintaining them have increased by many folds; cloud networking is the solution for it. The concept behind the development of cloud networking is using Software as a Service (SaaS). There are a large number of servers in a data centre and several processors intensive software which requires more processing power, in which case they need more developed networks which are capable of handling big data storage capacity and transferring capability . Figure 1: Software as a Service (SaaS)  A. ATTRIBUTES OF CLOUD NETWORKING Scalability: There are a large number of nodes that are involved in a cloud network. It is necessary that they must measure the rate of successful message and information delivery to the user